TGF beta in the rheumatoid arthritis research

Linlin Guo


Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease of joints primarily, which is characterized by immune cell infiltration and hyperplastic growth of resident cells and blood vessles in synovial tissues. Despite that biomarker research in RA has progressed greatly, the pathogenesis is still not well defined. Transforming growth factor TGF beta is a homodimeric cytokine with multiple functions in embryonic development, immune responses, inflammation and repair. The involvement of TGF beta in RA has been under investigation for a long period in various contexts. The structure and activation of TGFB1, TGFB2 and TGFB3 have been reviewed and compared in this review.  Its profibrotic and immunosuppressive function has been discussed in multiple diseases especially in terms of RA pathogenesis.


Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA); Transforming growth factor (TGF) beta; (TGF) beta receptor (TGFβ); Osteoarthritis (OA); autoimmune disease.

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